史上最全的ASP.NET MVC路由配置

继续延续坑爹标题系列。其实只是把apress.pro.asp.net.mvc.4.framework里的CHAPTER 13翻译过来罢了,当做自己总结吧。内容看看就好,排版就不要吐槽了,反正我知道你也不会反对的。

XD 首先说URL的构造。 其实这个也谈不上构造,只是语法特性吧。

命名参数规范+匿名对象

routes.MapRoute( name: “Default”, url: “{controller}/{action}/{id}”, defaults: new { controller = “Home”, action = “Index”, id = UrlParameter.Optional } );

构造路由然后添加

Route myRoute = new Route(“{controller}/{action}”, new MvcRouteHandler()); routes.Add(“MyRoute”, myRoute);

直接方法重载+匿名对象

routes.MapRoute(“ShopSchema”, “Shop/{action}”, new { controller = “Home” });

个人觉得第一种比较易懂,第二种方便调试,第三种写起来比较效率吧。各取所需吧。本文行文偏向于第三种。

?1.默认路由(MVC自带)

routes.MapRoute( “Default”, // 路由名称 “{controller}/{action}/{id}”, // 带有参数的 URL new { controller = “Home”, action = “Index”, id = UrlParameter.Optional } // 参数默认值 (UrlParameter.Optional-可选的意思) );

2.静态URL段

routes.MapRoute(“ShopSchema2″, “Shop/OldAction”, new { controller = “Home”, action = “Index” });

routes.MapRoute(“ShopSchema”, “Shop/{action}”, new { controller = “Home” });

routes.MapRoute(“ShopSchema2″, “Shop/OldAction.js”, new { controller = “Home”, action = “Index” });

没有占位符路由就是现成的写死的。

比如这样写然后去访问http://localhost:XXX/Shop/OldAction.js,response也是完全没问题的。 controller , action , area这三个保留字就别设静态变量里面了。

3.自定义常规变量URL段(好吧这翻译暴露智商了)

routes.MapRoute(“MyRoute2″, “{controller}/{action}/{id}”, new { controller = “Home”, action = “Index”, id = “DefaultId” });

这种情况如果访问 /Home/Index 的话,因为第三段(id)没有值,根据路由规则这个参数会被设为DefaultId

这个用viewbag给title赋值就能很明显看出

ViewBag.Title = RouteData.Values["id"];

图不贴了,结果是标题显示为DefaultId。 注意要在控制器里面赋值,在视图赋值没法编译的。

4.再述默认路由

然后再回到默认路由。 UrlParameter.Optional这个叫可选URL段.路由里没有这个参数的话id为null。 照原文大致说法,这个可选URL段能用来实现一个关注点的分离。刚才在路由里直接设定参数默认值其实不是很好。照我的理解,实际参数是用户发来的,我们做的只是定义形式参数名。但是,如果硬要给参数赋默认值的话,建议用语法糖写到action参数里面。比如:

public ActionResult Index(string id = “abcd”) { ViewBag.Title = RouteData.Values["id"]; return View(); }

5.可变长度路由

routes.MapRoute(“MyRoute”, “{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}”, new { controller = “Home”, action = “Index”, id = UrlParameter.Optional });

在这里id和最后一段都是可变的,所以 /Home/Index/dabdafdaf 等效于 /Home/Index//abcdefdjldfiaeahfoeiho 等效于 /Home/Index/All/Delete/Perm/…..

6.跨命名空间路由

这个提醒一下记得引用命名空间,开启IIS网站不然就是404。这个非常非主流,不建议瞎搞。

routes.MapRoute(“MyRoute”, “{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}”, new { controller = “Home”, action = “Index”, id = UrlParameter.Optional }, new[] { “URLsAndRoutes.AdditionalControllers”, “UrlsAndRoutes.Controllers” });

但是这样写的话数组排名不分先后的,如果有多个匹配的路由会报错。 然后作者提出了一种改进写法。

routes.MapRoute(“AddContollerRoute”, “Home/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}”, new { controller = “Home”, action = “Index”, id = UrlParameter.Optional }, new[] { “URLsAndRoutes.AdditionalControllers” });

routes.MapRoute(“MyRoute”, “{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}”, new { controller = “Home”, action = “Index”, id = UrlParameter.Optional }, new[] { “URLsAndRoutes.Controllers” });

这样第一个URL段不是Home的都交给第二个处理 最后还可以设定这个路由找不到的话就不给后面的路由留后路啦,也就不再往下找啦。

Route myRoute = routes.MapRoute(“AddContollerRoute”, “Home/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}”, new { controller = “Home”, action = “Index”, id = UrlParameter.Optional }, new[] { “URLsAndRoutes.AdditionalControllers” });

myRoute.DataTokens["UseNamespaceFallback"] = false;

7.正则表达式匹配路由

routes.MapRoute(“MyRoute”, “{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}”,
new { controller = “Home”, action = “Index”, id = UrlParameter.Optional },
new { controller = “^H.*”},
new[] { “URLsAndRoutes.Controllers”});

约束多个URL

routes.MapRoute(“MyRoute”, “{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}”,
new { controller = “Home”, action = “Index”, id = UrlParameter.Optional },
new { controller = “^H.*”, action = “^Index$|^About$”},
new[] { “URLsAndRoutes.Controllers”});

8.指定请求方法

routes.MapRoute(“MyRoute”, “{controller}/{action}/{id}/{*catchall}”,

new { controller = “Home”, action = “Index”, id = UrlParameter.Optional },

new { controller = “^H.*”, action = “Index|About”, httpMethod = new HttpMethodConstraint(“GET”) },

new[] { “URLsAndRoutes.Controllers” });

9.最后还是不爽的话自己写个类实现 IRouteConstraint的匹配方法。

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;
using System.Web.Routing;
///
/// If the standard constraints are not sufficient for your needs, you can define your own custom constraints by implementing the IRouteConstraint interface.
///
public class UserAgentConstraint : IRouteConstraint
{

private string requiredUserAgent;
public UserAgentConstraint(string agentParam)
{
requiredUserAgent = agentParam;
}
public bool Match(HttpContextBase httpContext, Route route, string parameterName,
RouteValueDictionary values, RouteDirection routeDirection)
{
return httpContext.Request.UserAgent != null &&
httpContext.Request.UserAgent.Contains(requiredUserAgent);
}
}

routes.MapRoute(“ChromeRoute”, “{*catchall}”,

new { controller = “Home”, action = “Index” },

new { customConstraint = new UserAgentConstraint(“Chrome”) },

new[] { “UrlsAndRoutes.AdditionalControllers” });

比如这个就用来匹配是否是用谷歌浏览器访问网页的。

10.访问本地文档

routes.RouteExistingFiles = true;

routes.MapRoute(“DiskFile”, “Content/StaticContent.html”, new { controller = “Customer”, action = “List”, });

浏览网站,以开启 IIS Express,然后点显示所有应用程序-点击网站名称-配置(applicationhost.config)-搜索UrlRoutingModule节点


把这个节点里的preCondition删除,变成

11.直接访问本地资源,绕过了路由系统

routes.IgnoreRoute(“Content/{filename}.html”);

文件名还可以用 {filename}占位符。

IgnoreRoute方法是RouteCollection里面StopRoutingHandler类的一个实例。路由系统通过硬-编码识别这个Handler。如果这个规则匹配的话,后面的规则都无效了。 这也就是默认的路由里面routes.IgnoreRoute(“{resource}.axd/{*pathInfo}”);写最前面的原因。

路由测试(在测试项目的基础上,要装moq)

PM> Install-Package Moq

using System;
using Microsoft.VisualStudio.TestTools.UnitTesting;
using System.Web;
using Moq;
using System.Web.Routing;
using System.Reflection;
[TestClass]
public class RoutesTest
{
private HttpContextBase CreateHttpContext(string targetUrl = null, string HttpMethod = “GET”)
{
// create the mock request
MockmockRequest = new Mock();
mockRequest.Setup(m => m.AppRelativeCurrentExecutionFilePath)
.Returns(targetUrl);
mockRequest.Setup(m => m.HttpMethod).Returns(HttpMethod);
// create the mock response
MockmockResponse = new Mock();
mockResponse.Setup(m => m.ApplyAppPathModifier(
It.IsAny())).Returns(s => s);
// create the mock context, using the request and response
MockmockContext = new Mock();
mockContext.Setup(m => m.Request).Returns(mockRequest.Object);
mockContext.Setup(m => m.Response).Returns(mockResponse.Object);
// return the mocked context
return mockContext.Object;
}

private void TestRouteMatch(string url, string controller, string action, object routeProperties = null, string httpMethod = “GET”)
{
// Arrange
RouteCollection routes = new RouteCollection();
RouteConfig.RegisterRoutes(routes);
// Act – process the route
RouteData result = routes.GetRouteData(CreateHttpContext(url, httpMethod));
// Assert
Assert.IsNotNull(result);
Assert.IsTrue(TestIncomingRouteResult(result, controller, action, routeProperties));
}

private bool TestIncomingRouteResult(RouteData routeResult, string controller, string action, object propertySet = null)
{
Func valCompare = (v1, v2) =>
{
return StringComparer.InvariantCultureIgnoreCase
.Compare(v1, v2) == 0;
};
bool result = valCompare(routeResult.Values["controller"], controller)
&& valCompare(routeResult.Values["action"], action);
if (propertySet != null)
{
PropertyInfo[] propInfo = propertySet.GetType().GetProperties();
foreach (PropertyInfo pi in propInfo)
{
if (!(routeResult.Values.ContainsKey(pi.Name)
&& valCompare(routeResult.Values[pi.Name],
pi.GetValue(propertySet, null))))
{
result = false;
break;
}
}
}
return result;
}

private void TestRouteFail(string url)
{
// Arrange
RouteCollection routes = new RouteCollection();
RouteConfig.RegisterRoutes(routes);
// Act – process the route
RouteData result = routes.GetRouteData(CreateHttpContext(url));
// Assert
Assert.IsTrue(result == null || result.Route == null);
}

[TestMethod]
public void TestIncomingRoutes()
{
// check for the URL that we hope to receive
TestRouteMatch(“~/Admin/Index”, “Admin”, “Index”);
// check that the values are being obtained from the segments
TestRouteMatch(“~/One/Two”, “One”, “Two”);
// ensure that too many or too few segments fails to match
TestRouteFail(“~/Admin/Index/Segment”);//失败
TestRouteFail(“~/Admin”);//失败
TestRouteMatch(“~/”, “Home”, “Index”);
TestRouteMatch(“~/Customer”, “Customer”, “Index”);
TestRouteMatch(“~/Customer/List”, “Customer”, “List”);
TestRouteFail(“~/Customer/List/All”);//失败
TestRouteMatch(“~/Customer/List/All”, “Customer”, “List”, new { id = “All” });
TestRouteMatch(“~/Customer/List/All/Delete”, “Customer”, “List”, new { id = “All”, catchall = “Delete” });
TestRouteMatch(“~/Customer/List/All/Delete/Perm”, “Customer”, “List”, new { id = “All”, catchall = “Delete/Perm” });
}

}

最后还是再推荐一下Adam Freeman写的apress.pro.asp.net.mvc.4这本书。稍微熟悉MVC的从第二部分开始读好了。前面都是入门(对我来说是扯淡)。但总比国内某些写书的人好吧——把个开源项目的源代码下载下来帖到书上面来,然后标题起个深入解析XXXX,然后净瞎扯淡。最后一千多页的巨著又诞生了。Adam Freeman的风格我就很喜欢,都是实例写作,然后还在那边书里面专门写了大量的测试。

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